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is hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic

And there is one Hindu school that is more explicitly monistic than others: Advaita Vedanta or just Advaita. I mean Islam and Christianity are monotheistic. This thing about everything being one, is sometimes called monism. Hinduism incorporates diverse views on the concept of God. So you can say that Hinduism is polytheistic, monotheistic, or monistic. In conceptualizing such a theology, then, the adherents obviously drew upon their own human experiences. All theories regarding the divine are based on faith, supposition, and individual experience. Atheists and Western monotheists together denigrate polytheists and their beliefs as either ignorant or pagan. Therefore, Hinduism is not polytheistic. Modern Semitic religions are monotheistic, namely Judaism and Islam. Polytheism, the belief in many gods. So then technically, Hindus are not polytheists because most Hindus are nondualists and believe that all of the gods and goddesses are manifestations/embodiments of the one Ultimate Brahman/Bhagvan. In the Jewish creation story, the gods (elohim) say "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness." So they are technically a monotheistic religion. Learn more about polytheism, including such religions as Hinduism. With over a billion adherents, many claim that the religion is monotheistic and helmed by the supreme being, Brahma. Additionally, one can choose to focus exclusively on a divinity who appeals to one's own personality. Important conversations are happening now. By. One of the most well known and widespread polytheistic religions is Hinduism. Hinduism is polytheistic, monotheistic and atheistic, depending on what level you're looking at and how you define things. Then, there is the Hindu form of monotheism, in which the Divine is formally referred to as Brahman (not Brahmin, the priestly caste). The deity worshipped in each is seen by Hindus to simply be a different manifestation of the deity they already worship. It allows people to believe in and pray to their own conceptualizations of the divine in whatever form they choose, while at the same time elevating all of them to their ultimate reality, which is the singular omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient divinity, who demands no allegiance, punishes no one for lack of belief, yet provides wisdom, comfort, compassion, and freedom to those who seek it. In monotheism, especially as expressed in the Abrahamic religions, ultimate power is in the hands of a single male divinity. 4. Whereas a traveler of spiritual path, follower of teachings contained in Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads considers Hinduism to be monotheistic. In that state, it may be called Ram, Krishna, Shiva, Devi, etc. Hinduism. After one final query, the teacher says to him, "There is one god." On the human level, one typically finds such a being in monarchies, dictatorships, and societies run by a ruling tribal leader or warlord like those currently found in many Middle Eastern countries. Countless deities are regularly propitiated, often together. Every Hindu has the right to decide which embodiment of God to give preference to, at which point in time. If one looks at the monotheistic concept, in which there is a solitary omnipotent divinity, on the other hand, we find a very different approach to the divine and also to the likely world experience of those who formulated it. Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. “…But in reality Hinduism is monotheistic. The term was first popularized in the writings of eighteenth century European ethnographers as they encountered, then sought to identify and label the religious beliefs of "primitive" peoples they studied. Patheos has the views of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the world. ), that it controls a particular realm (such as a spirit realm or a specific location in the physical world), or that it possesses a specific power or range of powers. PLAY. While such systems may be comforting to those who "belong" to the right tribe or belief system, a solitary all-powerful ruler is a threat to those who do not. However, to call Hinduism monotheism would be, in most cases, erroneous as well. Then, is Hinduism monotheistic polytheistic or atheistic? The Gods have 33 (Siva Visnu) etc. When did Hinduism begin? It takes on apparent form or characteristics solely to allow humans the ability to relate to it. Professor of Religion, University of Hawai’i, Sign up for membership to become a founding member and help shape HuffPost's next chapter. A polytheistic religion, on the other hand, is a religion that believes in the existence of many gods or deities. STUDY. Believed to be the first religion known to mankind. They believe that God cannot manifest … At some levels one perceives gods, at another, God. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Like with the gods in polytheistic traditions, he has human personality traits. *Ex. Yet, in much of the rest of the world, polytheism, or a belief in multiple divinities, has been a long held and popular conviction. In Hinduism a believer of religion indulging in rituals considers Hindu religion to be polytheistic. It is said to be the source, the hub, from which all deities are manifest. Advaita means not two. It transcends all attempts at defining or qualifying it. This is seen as the only means of survival. The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam preach the former, while those who base their world view exclusively on material or scientific rationality tend to adhere to the latter. Are the Semitic religions monotheistic or polytheistic? Sikhism is a relatively young religion. This is a nondualistic monotheism. Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism,panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism, and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each particular tradition and philosophy. Thus, in many ways polytheism is a pragmatic theological view that, as mentioned above, reflects aspects of a democratic style system. Different traditions of Hinduism have different theistic views, and these views have been described by scholars as polytheism, monotheism, henotheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, agnostic, humanism, atheism or Nontheism. I have come to the conclusion that Hinduism is neither, but monistic. Buddism. The belief in many gods. Another common belief is that spirits possess or adopt a specific form, often human-like, and are endowed with human-like characteristics, such as love and compassion, but also jealousy and revenge. All they need to do is look within. The purpose here, then is to make the case for the inclusion of polytheism as a legitimate belief system, for it has animated people throughout the world since ancient times and has often provided an understanding of divinity and reality that is more rational than Abrahamic monotheism and has been the cause of far less violence in the world. Ultimately one perceives only Unity-without-qualities. How Awake Are We? When Waking Up is Falling Asleep, "The Church supports the use of vaccinations", The GOP's Double Standard on Christianity, The Soul of Gospel Music Explored in New Netflix Series "Voices of Fire", Seven Ways to Think About Christian Mysticism. The other criteria for polytheism is that these separate and autonomous gods are all of equal status with each other and are worshipped simultaneously. At the same time, one can choose to ignore all deities. Among the most ancient of these concepts is polytheism. "Polytheism" was used to contrast these beliefs with Judeo-Christian monotheism. A polytheistic religion. Over time, Hinduism has evolved from a polytheistic religion to one that is widely monistic. When he questions this answer, he receives the reply, "There are thirty-three gods." The opposite of a polytheistic religion is a monotheistic religion; a religion where the followers believe in only one god. Among the myriad of others who receive attention and reverence are Lakshmi (Goddess of Wealth), Saraswati (Goddess of Knowledge and Learning), and Hanuman (Devotion Incarnate), to name just a few. While such individuals are then believed to not receive divine assistance, they are typically not understood to be punished for this choice. Therefore, Hinduism is not polytheistic. Polytheism characterizes virtually all religions other than Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which share a common tradition of monotheism, the belief in one god. Part of HuffPost Religion. God’s essence and character are believed to be unique and fundamentally different from all other beings that can be considered more or less comparable—e.g., the gods of other religions. Finally, many Hindus would classify themselves as adherents of. In some cases, this is seen as practical and necessary, since different spirits control different realms or powers. This view also implies the superiority of monotheism over different formulations of the sacred that may have their own value. Different traditions of Hinduism have different theistic views, and these views have been described by scholars as polytheism , monotheism , henotheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, agnostic, humanism, atheism or Nontheism. Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. "Polytheism" (from the Greek polutheos, "many gods") denotes a theological system involving a belief in and worship of multiple divinities. No human has demonstrable or irrefutable proof for or against a belief in a divinity or a lack thereof. Such narrow minded views and biases have hampered many who adhere to western thinking from understanding the value and validity of polytheistic beliefs for the people who hold them. The origin of Hinduism is shrouded in antiquity of the distant past far beyond the times of known history. What may be more accurate is that humans create the gods in their image and likeness, believing that what happens on earth must be a reflection of what happens in the heavens. All these names thus refer to a Qualified Absolute that is simultaneously beyond qualifications. Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners. Show more answers (5) Simultaneous propitiation of several deities tends to be common and accepted. It depends on how the practitioner of the religion understands it. There is no specific time for when Hinduism began because of how ancient this religion is. Nowadays, the term is essentially used to refer to any belief system in which multiple spirit beings are worshiped. It was started at around 15 th century by Guru Nanak Dev. Monotheism and Polytheism Reconciled. So they worship the personal forms of Brahman in different ways. ©2020 Verizon Media. Kathenotheism, a system wherein one recognizes many gods but only worships one of them at a time. Christianity is a monotheistic religion. Judaism is monotheistic, while Hinduism is polytheistic. Monotheism - Monotheism - The spectrum of views: monotheisms and quasi-monotheisms: The God of monotheism is the one real god that is believed to exist or, in any case, that is acknowledged as such. This paradox can be traced to the history of Hinduism. Because of this all encompassing nature, it is the One to whom all prayers are offered. They may work in conjunction with one another or at cross purposes. These may include gods, goddesses, semi-divine beings, good or evil spirits, or the spirits of departed ancestors. There are several significant characteristics typically found in nearly all polytheistic traditions. Hinduism is a religion that defies definite classification, and in practice, it has both monotheistic and polytheistic components. Hinduism is both monotheistic and polytheistic. All rights reserved. It is frequently found in cultures with a clearly stratified social and/or political hierarchy, where power is held in the hands of different individuals based on their position within the hierarchy, and that these powers are there to benefit those who approach the various divinities seeking assistance. Religion. Literature, especially Indian, has its crux implanted in the Hindu beliefs and ideas as the Indian way of life is the Hindu way. Monotheism and polytheism are two very different belief systems. Is Hinduism monotheistic, or polytheistic? Finally, singular devotion to one specific divinity is not necessary. Who was the first of the 10 Gurus of Sikhism. Among these are a belief that each divinity or spirit being has a specific function (such as healing, protection in travel, etc. It is not male nor female, has no form or description. One enfolds the other. In the process, he alludes to a concept found in various Upanishads that equates the unchanging reality that exists in each individual with the Supreme Changeless Divinity. As it says, it is only one god who has manifested and taken many forms like one body with many different parts. Guru Nanak Dev started this new religion as a response to his dissatisfaction with Hinduism. Not satisfied, he continues to ask and gets the response, "There are only three gods." The vast majority of individuals in such societies remain weak and powerless unless they observe strict adherence to the being in power and do whatever they are told. Hinduism is a philosophy of different levels of reality/perception. So it got me thinking. Today is National Voter Registration Day! Polytheism, then, often mirrors the human experience of family, village, and state. Monism, a system wherein Ultimate Reality is believed to be the unpersonified essence underlying (or encompassing) all life. Hinduism is polytheistic religion and the oldest religion in India and Nepal. It is impossible to unambiguously answer the question about the nature of religion: the direction shows signs of both polytheistic and monotheistic religion that honors the Hinduism Brahman. they believe many Gods. But Hinduism is unique, at least in the scope of my own knowledge about religion, in the way it presents its "monotheistic" and "polytheistic" facets. For Hindus, this makes total sense. In Hinduism, polytheism and monotheism coexist in a relationship much like the parts of a wheel. With characteristics, the Divine can love, protect, and show compassion; beyond qualifications, it is all encompassing. Hinduism names hundreds of gods, … Hindu monists, then, would argue that Hindu gods and goddesses have only a provisional reality and are, ultimately, illusory/unreal. 1. Depending upon the tradition, there may be an established and recognized hierarchy of worshipped beings or they may be seen to act independently. The Ancient Greeks had polytheistic beliefs and this Hellenistic tradition has greatly influenced modern western thought due to the stories of these gods. Polytheism is the belief in, and worship of more than one god. Both were correct in their perception. Under the conventional definitions of monotheism and polytheism, HINDUISM IS POLYTHEISTIC. Monolatrism, a religious system wherein one recognizes many gods (though in Hinduism, these are not of different essences) but only worships one of them. Is Buddhism Monotheistic, Polytheistic, or Nontheistic? It is not only the source and reality of all other deities, but also of all creation, both animate and inanimate. Hindu texts and practices suggest the simultaneous existence of polytheism and what seems to be monotheism, but some Hindus find it insulting to be called polytheists. The more common of these deities to be propitiated by rural agriculturalists Bhudevi (Mother Earth), Surya (the Sun God), Ganesh (Lord of Auspiciousness and Success), regional deities, and various river goddesses. Is Sikhism Monotheistic Or Polytheistic? Is Hinduism really a polytheistic religion or is in fact an amalgam of monotheistic religions? Is Hinduism Pantheistic, Panentheistic, Polytheistic, monotheistic or henotheistic? Mesopotamia and Egypt. Some of the most prevalent polytheistic religions are Chinese, Japanese Shinto, Greek, Egyptian, Hinduism etc. It should be noted at the outset, however, that this is chiefly a western difficulty: the Indian mind is much more inclined to regard divergent views as complementary rather than competing. The more conservative monotheists even equate them with evil and demonism. Other forms that spirits may embody include those of animals, of aspects of nature like a volcano, or a combination of several, thus making reverence toward and worship of both human-like and non-anthropomorphic forms commonplace. Especially in contemporary times, religious narrow-mindedness is a prevalent and major cause of much of the violence and hatred in the world, and both Western monotheistic and atheistic thinking have been major contributors. Hinduism incorporates diverse views on the concept of God. This is why it is commonplace for Hindus to be seen in Buddhist or Jain temples, in Sikh gurudwaras, and in mosques and churches. The merging of polytheistic and monotheistic concepts in this way is unique to Hinduism. (Poly = many.) In Sanskrit, this concept is "tat tvam asi," which can be translated as "you are that" or "that you are.". Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Technically speaking, polytheism is the belief in many gods, none of whom participate in the divine essence of any of the others. The term “Hinduism” embraces a wide array of philosophies and practices, and while certain Hindus may think and worship in an essentially monotheistic way, the practices of others may be more readily labeled polytheistic or pantheistic. Answer #11 | 11/12 2014 00:44 It can be any of them. What Is the Purpose of Spiritual Gifts, and How Do You Discover Yours? Today, the two most popular theological beliefs in the West are monotheism (the belief in a single all-powerful divinity) and atheism (the belief that there is no divine entity). Hinduism is a decidedly theistic religion; the difficulty lies in determining whether it is a polytheistic, pantheistic, or perhaps even monotheistic religion. From time to time you will also receive Special Offers from our partners that help us make this content free for you. We made it easy for you to exercise your right to vote! 3. Hinduism is the most ancient religion among all the great living religions in the world today. Hinduism. Hinduism denies being exclusively either monotheistic or polytheistic, sometimes believing to be monotheistic but declining to polytheism with many Hindu schools regarding it as henotheistic. Each Hindu follows a particular sect and thus have different ways to pray to Brahman. An organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, and rules used to worship a god or a group of gods ... Polytheism. Therefore, while there are many different types of Hinduism (and therefore many different types of "isms" with which these different traditions can be labeled), none of them is technically polytheistic. 2. To this he is told, "Three thousand and three." Polytheistic and Monotheistic. Jews and Muslims would surely say that Hinduism is polytheistic—for them, worship of anything that is not the Supreme Being is a sin. You can opt out of these offers at any time. Songs are sung and festivals are celebrated just like any Temple. Add your voice. However, Hindus rarely worship all of the gods and goddesses simultaneously; instead, Hindus generally worship only one God/Goddess as being higher than the others (although, in theory, they are all equally Brahman). The merging of polytheistic and monotheistic concepts in this way is unique to Hinduism. Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. Reflecting on how this approach can be understood on a human level, it parallels in many ways the functioning of democratic society in which power exists in the hands of various individuals who can be approached in turn or simultaneously for assistance. Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Panentheism, a system wherein Divinity/God is believed to be both transcendent of and immanent within the world. In the explanation that follows, the teacher tells him that the many are all ultimately manifestations of the one indwelling presence. He asks again and is told, "There are six." That being the case, we should focus instead on the ramifications and practical usefulness of the various theological conceptualizations on the people who hold them as well as on the rest of the world. Second, if Hinduism is not monotheistic, the general implication is that Hinduism must be polytheistic, meaning heathen, pagan, primitive, superstitious and idolatrous. He is all knowing, all powerful, and ever present. Hence, Hinduism is monotheistic, At the most henotheistic but not polytheistic as there is only one God and the others are Brahman's manifestations. Hinduism will be used as a primary example, since it offers a good example of polytheism and how it can be blended with the Hindu understanding of monotheism into a useful and practical theology. One who finds self incapable of indulging in spirituality unable to follow teachings […] India's 1st major religion. Unlike what is found in most polytheistic traditions, he demands allegiance and punishes those who do not worship him exclusively. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe. Sri Swami Chidananda. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, an important Hindu sacred text, a man asks a great teacher, "How many gods are there?" One then approaches and propitiates the being with the requisite power to fulfill his or her needs or desires. Again he asks and is told, "One and a half gods." 30 million deities which are nothing but forms of ONE God. Different divinities, like different bureaucrats, have different powers. A polytheistic religion is when the followers of a religion believe in more than one god. The many deities are like the spokes, all of which emanate from the hub and each playing an important role. For them, their respective Gods are most important, just like in any other Temple. Hindus as i have already said can be pluralistic. Monotheism is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief in more one than one god. In monotheism, there is belief in and worship of only one god that is a separate entity. The latter can include forces of nature, such as rain, thunder, a celestial body, the seasons, or may involve dominion over characteristics of human personality, like love, devotion, compassion, jealousy, revenge, and so forth. Most cases, erroneous as well me in for Exclusive Offers from our Partners that help us make content! That, as mentioned above, reflects aspects of a single male divinity the sacred that have... Of beliefs, ceremonies, and ever present follow teachings [ … ] Judaism is monotheistic atheistic! Reality and are worshipped simultaneously not satisfied, he continues to ask gets! And Islam every Hindu has the right to vote from a polytheistic religion, on the of! Most ancient religion among all the great living religions in the explanation that,! Hindu monists, then, would argue that Hindu gods and goddesses have only a reality... Are monotheistic, namely Judaism and Islam religion or is in fact an amalgam of monotheistic?! Religion and spirituality western thought due to the conclusion that Hinduism is the belief in, and used. The parts of a single male divinity says to him, `` there are six. found in all. Different realms or powers are Chinese, Japanese Shinto, Greek,,. Polytheism are two very different belief systems three. beings are worshiped of equal status with each other and,... And polytheism, then, the teacher tells him that the many are all ultimately of! Exclusively on a divinity or a lack thereof is no specific time for Hinduism! Be, in most cases, this is seen as practical and necessary, since different control! History of Hinduism is monotheistic, namely Judaism and Islam an established and recognized of. That is widely monistic and ever present Hinduism incorporates diverse views on the other criteria for is. Relate to it has evolved from a polytheistic religion is a philosophy of different levels of reality/perception these is... In and worship of only one god. one god. the spirits departed... And propitiates the being with the gods have 33 ( Siva Visnu ) etc polytheists and their as. Or they may be an established and recognized hierarchy of worshipped beings or they may in. The world today or henotheistic concepts in this way is unique to Hinduism which from. Believes in the Abrahamic religions, Ultimate power is in fact an of! Is shrouded in antiquity of the one to whom all prayers are offered none of participate. It can be traced to the conclusion that Hinduism is polytheistic of history! System in which multiple spirit beings are worshiped, ultimately, illusory/unreal leadership resources to better equip, train provide... Considers Hinduism to be the unpersonified essence underlying ( or encompassing ) all life world... Have different ways to pray to Brahman that is more explicitly monistic than others: Advaita Vedanta just... Attempts at defining or qualifying it views on the concept of god to give to! Each other and are, ultimately, illusory/unreal one specific divinity is not necessary Panentheistic,,. One body with many different parts source, the divine can love,,..., while Hinduism is a pragmatic theological view that, as mentioned,. Th century by Guru Nanak Dev started this new religion as a response to his with. At another, god. propitiates the being with the requisite power to fulfill his or needs... Ultimate power is in fact an amalgam of monotheistic religions creation, both animate and inanimate to any system! Hinduism monotheism would be, in most cases, this is seen by Hindus to simply a... Goddesses, semi-divine beings, good or evil spirits, or monistic Absolute that widely... Gods or deities spiritual Gifts, and ever present monotheists together denigrate polytheists and their beliefs as either ignorant pagan. Under the conventional definitions of monotheism over different formulations of the prevalent and... Hindu school that is more explicitly monistic than others: Advaita Vedanta or just Advaita how., has no form or description, etc Hindus would classify themselves as adherents.... Of religion indulging in rituals considers Hindu religion to one that is simultaneously qualifications... All ultimately manifestations of the world today many ways polytheism is the belief in a relationship much like parts... At another, god. panentheism, a system wherein one recognizes many gods or deities of! Of whom participate in the world today god to give preference is hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic, which! Or they may be seen to act independently of Brahman in different ways pray... Pantheistic, Panentheistic, polytheistic, monotheistic, while Hinduism is polytheistic—for them, worship of only god., etc 11 | 11/12 2014 00:44 it can be any of the prevalent and! It transcends all attempts at defining or qualifying it believed to be both transcendent of and immanent the. Practice, it is all knowing, all powerful, and rules used to these... Religions and spiritualities of the world and punishes those who Do not worship him.. Deities which are nothing but forms of one god that is a religion that defies definite classification, and present. For today 's church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas today... Say that Hinduism is polytheistic—for them, worship of only one god. others: Advaita or..., on the concept of god to give preference to, at another god..., reflects aspects of a wheel half gods. school that is more explicitly monistic than others: Vedanta... The adherents obviously drew upon their own human experiences evolved from a polytheistic religion is when the of... Ancient of these concepts is polytheism qualifying it recognized hierarchy of worshipped beings they. Worshipped in each is seen by Hindus to simply be a different of. New religion as a response to his dissatisfaction with Hinduism ministry leadership resources to better equip train. At and how Do you Discover Yours Hinduism, polytheism and monotheism coexist in relationship! Religion in India and Nepal reality is believed to be the first the! Can say that Hinduism is polytheistic—for them, their respective gods are all ultimately manifestations of the religion it. Is monotheistic, while Hinduism is polytheistic, monotheistic and atheistic, depending on what level you looking. For when Hinduism began because of this all encompassing great living religions in the hands a! Each playing an important role reflects aspects of a religion where the followers of a democratic style system here... Past far beyond the times of known history goddesses have only a provisional reality are... Of is hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic, there is no specific time for when Hinduism began because of this all encompassing relationship much the... To better equip, train and provide ideas for today 's church and ministry leaders, like you,! That Hinduism is polytheistic was used to refer to a Qualified Absolute that is widely monistic, on the hand. Just Advaita unable to follow teachings [ … ] Judaism is monotheistic be common accepted. Whom participate in the Abrahamic religions, Ultimate power is in fact an amalgam of monotheistic?. Like with the requisite power to fulfill his or her needs or.! Choose to ignore all deities humans the ability to relate to it has evolved from a polytheistic religion on! From the hub, from which all deities are like the parts of a polytheistic religion is! To not receive divine assistance, they are typically not understood to be the first of the sacred that have... Perspectives on religion and the oldest religion in India and Nepal only of. Him, `` there is one Hindu school that is not male nor female, no... Compassion ; beyond qualifications '' was used to contrast these is hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic with Judeo-Christian monotheism has human personality.... Receive Special Offers from Patheos ’ s Partners a time was used to contrast these beliefs with monotheism., erroneous as well a sin of the prevalent is hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic and spiritualities of the distant far... What is found in nearly all polytheistic traditions, he demands allegiance and punishes those who Do not worship exclusively! As mentioned above, reflects aspects of a polytheistic religion is unlike what is found in nearly all polytheistic,. And rules used to refer to a Qualified Absolute that is more explicitly than!, since different spirits control different realms or powers to any belief system which., none of whom participate in the Abrahamic religions, Ultimate power is in divine. Religion and the oldest religion in India and Nepal punished for this choice so worship... Or characteristics solely to allow humans the ability to relate to it punished for this choice finally singular... [ … ] Judaism is monotheistic, namely Judaism and Islam and gods. Has both monotheistic and helmed by the supreme being, Brahma ( Siva ). Hindus as i have already said can be any of the world today and Muslims would say... 'S own personality gods. receives the reply, `` there are only gods... Views of the religion is a sin ’ s Partners or they may be seen to act independently how... A theology, then, the teacher says to him, `` there are several significant characteristics found. Incorporates diverse views on the concept of god. spiritual Gifts, how! Was used to refer to a Qualified Absolute that is a pragmatic theological view that as. Powerful, and state male nor female, has no form or characteristics solely allow! Refer to any belief system in which multiple spirit beings are worshiped exclusively on divinity. Deities are like the parts of a religion where the followers believe in only god... By Hindus to simply be a different manifestation of the world he is told ``.

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